At Pico Rivera Animal Hospital, we often see dogs with "hot spots" or allergic dermatitis (also called atopic dermatitis). Dogs often develop these skin conditions when they are exposed to an allergen. In this post, our Pico Rivera vets discuss ways you can recognize the different types of allergic dermatitis in dogs and how they are treated.
Allergies in Dogs
When dogs are allergic, they frequently develop skin reactions or gastrointestinal symptoms, whereas humans typically develop nasal symptoms and hives. This is due to the increased number of mast cells in dogs' skin, which release histamines and other vasoactive substances when they come into contact with or are exposed to allergens. Dogs may exhibit symptoms such as hot spots, itching and scratching, poor coat condition, diarrhea, gastrointestinal pain/discomfort, and flatulence when this occurs. If your dog has thyroid disease, his or her condition may worsen.
When dogs have allergic dermatitis or atopic (atopy) dermatitis, they have an inherited predisposition to develop allergy symptoms to a usually harmless substance (allergen) that they are repeatedly exposed to. Most of the time dogs start developing signs of having allergies when they are between 1 and 3 years old. Because this condition is hereditary it's seen more often in golden retrievers, Irish setters, bulldogs, most terriers, and Old English sheepdogs, however, all dogs, including mixed breeds can develop allergic dermatitis.
Common Types of Allergies in Dogs
Below we have listed some of the most common allergies in dogs:
Your dog may develop an allergy to the food even if he or she has been eating it for months. It makes no difference whether they eat the cheapest or most expensive brand; if they are allergic to any ingredient in their food, they will develop symptoms. Premium dog foods, on the other hand, may contain fewer filler ingredients that could cause an allergy.
Dogs who become allergic to flea bites are allergic to a protein in the flea's saliva, not the flea itself. Fleas are more likely to cause symptoms in dogs who are only occasionally exposed to them than in dogs who are constantly exposed to these external parasites.
Contact & Inhalent Allergies
Allergies in dogs can be caused by mold, pollen, trees, weeds, and dust mites, just like in humans. Keep an eye out for symptoms to determine which one your dog is allergic to. If your dog's symptoms are seasonal, pollen may be to blame, but mold may be to blame if they occur all year.
When a dog's immune system overreacts to normal Staphylococcus (Staph) bacteria on his skin, he develops bacterial hypersensitivity. Microscopically, specific changes occur in the blood vessels of dogs with bacterial hypersensitivity. Bacterial culture and examination of a biopsy sample can help with diagnosis.
Dogs that already have other conditions such as hypothyroidism, an inhalant allergy, and/or a flea allergy are more likely to develop bacterial hypersensitivity.
Diagnosing Dogs With Allergic Dermatitis
An allergy test is the most reliable way to diagnose allergies in dogs, and there are several types of these tests available. A blood test that looks for antigen-induced antibodies in a dog's blood is the most common.
Intradermal skin testing involves shaving a portion of a dog's skin and injecting a small amount of antigen into it. The skin is examined after a certain period of time for a small raised reaction in order to identify the allergens.
Once your dog has been diagnosed with an allergy, your vet will start developing a treatment plan.
Treating Dog Allergic Dermatitis and Other Skin Allergies
The specific allergen causing a dog's skin allergies will determine its treatment. Your dog's treatment may include one or more of the following:
- Immunotherapy (hypo-sensitization) Allergy shots are another name for them. Hypersensitizing injections are made in a lab specifically for your dog's allergy and are given to your pup on a regular basis (frequency depends on your dog's specific case). While this method is frequently very effective, it can take 6 to 12 months to see any noticeable improvement.
- Medicated baths with shampoos containing antimicrobial and antifungal agents as well as other ingredients can help soothe a dog's injured skin, reduce inflammation, and remove allergens.
- Flea control regimes can help prevent and get rid of fleas. To keep fleas from thriving on your pet, your vet may recommend giving your dog flea medications.
- Antihistamines might be able to help control your dog's symptoms, however, they don't always work. On the other hand, if antihistamines are effective, this is could be an affordable option that typically has a very low risk of side effects.
- Hypoallergenic diets can either remove, replace, or reduce the food ingredient your dog is allergic to.
- Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents should only be used as a last resort to control a dog's itching and scratching during allergy season or to relieve extreme discomfort (and in small quantities). This method may cause increased urination, thirst, and appetite, as well as skin jaundice and behavioral changes. Long-term use of this method may result in diabetes or decreased infection resistance.
- Controlling your dog's environment could be the best way to manage your dog's allergy if you are aware of the allergen and are able to remove it or minimize your dog's exposure to it effectively. Even if your pooch is on another medication, it is still best to reduce their exposure to the allergen if possible.
Note: The advice provided in this post is intended for informational purposes and does not constitute medical advice regarding pets. For an accurate diagnosis of your pet's condition, please make an appointment with your vet.